WORLD’S BIGGEST DENTAL STEMCELL BANK
Stem cells are the master cells of our body. Stem cells are characterized dependent on two major characteristics, long time self-renewal capacity even after inactive for a longer period and differentiation ability (one or more different specialized cell types). The totipotent Stem cells have the potential to frame a wide range of tissues and organs in the developing life and additional embryonic tissues. Tissue-specific cells present in various niches in our body like bone marrow, brain, liver, umbilical cord, adipose tissue, dental pulp, and skin. The main function and activity of stem cells were mainly tissue maintenance (including growth, repair). Adult stem cell showed plasticity towards some specific lineages
Stem cells have 3 different types.
Adult Stem cells are unique human cells that can form into various cell types, from muscle cells to nerves. Now and again, they have the ability to repair damaged tissues. Stem cells can generate cells to replace those that are lost through normal repair, disease, or injury. Stem cells are found throughout one’s lifetime in tissues such as the umbilical cord, placenta, tooth, Adipose tissue and bone marrow. The first adult stem cells were extracted and used for blood production in 1948.
Adult stem cells are categorized into two types.
Hematopoietic stem cells are available from two major sources,they are bone marrow and umbilical cord blood. Mesenchymal stemcells are available from bone marrow, umbilical cord tissue, dental pulp, and adipose tissue.
Mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to develop into structural and connective tissues in our body. Because of this character,mesenchymal stem cells could potentially be used in treating more disease conditions than blood stem cells. Research in the mesenchymal stem cell area is now the forefront of medical sciences.” Incurable” conditions were targeted with cellular approaches.
Stem cells found in the tooth pulp are called dental stem cells. The dental pulp stem cells are found within the child’s milk teeth and healthy adult teeth. These cells have remarkable regenerative potential and can convert into different types of cells. Tooth derived cells are considered to be naive cells which allow these cells to adapt and repair cells like muscles, nerves,joints and even a damaged heart. The tooth pulp is an extremely good source for the mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to eventually form dentin, enamel, nerves tissues, blood vessels, and dental pulp. Because of extreme ease in the collection in younger years of age before calcification, and minimal to no morbidity, they constitute a major source for personal banking, research, and multiple other therapeutic applications. These dental pulp/ mesenchymal stem cells shown capable of producing hepatocytes and beta cells this may be a potential cure for liver cirrhosis and diabetes in the future.
Mesenchymal stem cells harvested from the dental pulparea powerful and potent platform for developing cellular treatments in the future. Different groups of scientific communities are studying the role of these amazing cells in treating conditions such as type 1 diabetes, spinal cord injury, stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attack), corneal damage and neurological diseases like Parkinson's, etc. By preserving our own teeth stem cells or child’s teeth we ensure our future. Wisdom teeth also one of the best viable sources of dental stem cells. If someone lost the opportunity to store stem cell at the time of birth (umbilical cord) now they have another opportunity to preserve these viable dental pulp stem cells from the teeth. The hematopoietic stem cells obtained from umbilical cord that can just create in the blood & immune system-related area cells, MSCs got from teeth have boundless potential because of their pluripotency. Mesenchymal stem cells hold the promise regenerating damaged organs/ tissues to re-establish the normal function of those specific organs/ tissues by stimulating the body's own repair mechanisms to heal previously irreparable organs/ tissues.
Traditionally bone marrow is a very rich source for hematopoietic stem cells whereas it's not that great source for mesenchymal stem cells. MSCs availability drastically reduces in the bone marrow when the age of an individual increase. Researchers state mesenchymal stem cells decline with age. As illustrated in the below graph, per marrow we can found ONE mesenchymal stem cell in every 10,000 cells when the child is under 11 years. When the child's age becomes 18 plus years, the availability of mesenchymal stem cells goes down 10 times and we can only found 1 mesenchymal stem cell in every 1,00,000 cells and so on.. Therefore preserving mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp during the younger ages of the child is the best opportunity for the parents.